The process of collecting genetic information from one person and creating an identical copy is known as human cloning. The copied item is named clone. Although it might seem unrealistic, it has been in presence for quite some time. The first thing cloned was an animal, a sheep. After that, human cloning was discovered. Here are a few things you need to know:
A brief description of human cloning
It was quite impossible to think that humans can also be cloned without sexual reproduction. Due to the advancement in science, many things have been possible with time. The studies are going on for the last 40 years in the field of human cloning. Scientists are finding new ways to make human cloning more useful and beneficial for everyone. Legalizing human cloning can be helpful for those who are suffering from injuries or diseases.
How does it happen?
It does not require an exact genetic replica to produce the embryo (cloned). Mitochondria are all kinds of human cells, including sperm, egg, containing small energy-producing organelles. It is a small piece of DNA containing the genetic information making various mitochondrial proteins. SCNT is transferring the nucleus into the oocyte, containing the mitochondrial DNA of the egg. It is similar to sexual reproduction, where the embryo has the genetic material from different human beings.
SCNT – The technique of human cloning
Human cloning is achieved through a technique known as SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer). The process of introducing the material from the nucleus present in the human somatic cell into an oocyte, whose nucleus has been inactivated or removed is SCNT. It then becomes an ovum, which no longer needs fertilization as it contains the right amount of genetic material. After this, the new entity begins by dividing, growing, and yielding into a cloned embryo.
Information about different cloning methods
The term reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning are misleading a lot of people nowadays. But both kinds of cloning can produce embryo and are reproductive. Duplicating a human offspring that resembles as their parents, is reproductive cloning, while therapeutic cloning is preferred to growing cells.
Form of reproduction
It is known to be a form of reproduction where the offspring is not formed from the amalgamation of sperm and egg. It is formed from the genetic makeup of other individuals known as asexual reproduction. Human cloning is an asexual production where a human is developed from the previous or existing human being. But, if you want to know the success rate, it is quite less.
From the cloned embryo, stem cell is developed in therapeutic cloning. It helps in treating a lot of diseases or disorders. It has also been quite helpful in organ replacement therapies. The process that needs to be followed is quite similar to somatic cell nuclear transfer. The only difference is the embryo is inserted into the surrogate mother, growing into a stem cell. Thus, it is used in various other therapies. Presently, therapeutic cloning is like harvesting embryonic stem cells and is also used for a research purpose. Scientists are trying their best to research new things so that they can help people with possible benefits.
Benefits of human cloning
Many benefits of human cloning are available. The benefits are:
Embryonic stem cells can help in producing tissues or organs and replacing them with the damaged one. It helps in eliminating the burn victims’ skin, replacing the cells of a damaged brain, producing vital human organs, spinal cord cells, and so on.
Human cloning helps to cure various diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, degenerative joint disease, heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, and so on. Due to human cloning, it has been easier for people to overcome such diseases.
Helps in infertility
Human cloning has also been quite helpful in the areas of infertility, cell development, reconstructive, as well as plastic surgery. Couples are facing infertility issues; for them, it has been quite helpful to have babies now. Human cloning has outnumbered the side effects that anyone can have. If human cloning is legalized, it can be quite useful in the times to come. It helps to attain a better understanding of miscarriages.
Have a baby
Unfortunately, parents who have lost their babies can have another one now. Along with that, homosexual couples can also have a baby. It has helped those couples, who have been suffering from genetic diseases and cannot conceive.
Repairs nervous system
Not only human cloning helps in repairing the nervous system, but it also eliminating defective genes. It can even reverse the aging process and eliminate the need for cosmetic surgery. You can also eliminate kidney failure, liver failure, cancer, leukemia, baldness, cystic fibrosis, and more.
Modifying animal organs
Well, by modifying animal organs, it can also be transplanted in the human body. As a result, a person can get over his or her health issues. It also helps in eliminating viral epidemics, as a person isn’t born through the natural reproductive process. Quite naturally, diseases and health symptoms that are passed on genetically, are absent in the case of cloned entities.
Let’s now explore some of the ethical issues of human cloning.
One more issue is whether a clone will become self-sufficient or not. It means who will be responsible for helping the child. In short, you can also say who will take his or her responsibility.
There is a chance of deformed or nonviable embryos being produced are quite high. It can lead to miscarriages or abortions. The clone can also have abnormalities in some cases.
Human cloning has started to gain grounds of late. Due to human cloning, it has been easier to eliminate a lot of diseases. People who have suffered from accidents and want to reduce the scars of the same can prefer opting for human cloning. A lot of research work is still going on in this field to understand how it can be more beneficial. However, its full-fledged implementation will depend on quite a few other factors, as it also encompasses ethical and societal norms.